The Foods eaten by the people of Burundi

Burundi, a small landlocked country in East Africa, has a diet that reflects both its geographic location and its cultural history. The cuisine is largely based on agricultural produce, with some influence from neighboring countries and historical trading partners. Over the last 500 years, certain core elements have remained relatively consistent, with some changes brought about by trade, colonization, and globalization.

Staple Foods:

  • Bananas: These are a major staple and are consumed in various forms, including cooked, fried, and in stews.
  • Beans: Another staple, often eaten with staple grains or bananas.
  • Corn (Maize): Consumed as "ugali," a type of stiff porridge, or as boiled or roasted corn.
  • Sorghum and Millet: These grains have historically been important, particularly for making porridge and local beer.

Meat and Protein:

  • Fish: Especially from Lake Tanganyika, are an important source of protein.
  • Goat and Chicken: While not eaten daily, these meats are more common for special occasions.
  • Insects: Such as white ants and lake flies, have traditionally been consumed as well.

Vegetables and Fruits:

  • Cassava: Both the leaves and the roots are consumed.
  • Sweet Potatoes: Another root vegetable that is commonly consumed.
  • Leafy Greens: Such as amaranth leaves ("dodo") and African nightshade ("isogi"), are commonly used in stews.
  • Fruits: Mangoes, papayas, and avocados are commonly eaten when in season.


  • Peanuts: Consumed as a snack or used to make sauces.

Spices and Seasonings:

  • Palm Oil: Often used for cooking.
  • Chilies: Used to add heat to various dishes.


  • Water and Milk: The primary beverages consumed.
  • Tea and Coffee: Grown in Burundi and consumed, especially in urban areas.
  • Local Beers: Made from bananas or grains like sorghum and millet.

Colonial and Global Influences:

  • Rice: While not traditional, rice has become more common, especially in urban areas.
  • Bread: Also a result of European influence, has become more widespread.

Over the past 500 years, Burundi's diet has maintained its focus on local agricultural produce like bananas, beans, and various grains, while also integrating new foods like rice and bread through trade and colonial influence. The diet is largely plant-based, given the economic and geographic constraints that limit access to meats. Nonetheless, it's a diet that has sustained the Burundian people through centuries, offering a mix of carbohydrates, proteins, and essential nutrients.

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For those eating a modern diet, we recommend adding the below vitamins to your daily routine.